mosquito facts general

View previous topic View next topic Go down

mosquito facts general

Post by dean on Thu Apr 28, 2016 10:52 am

http://www.mosquito.org/faq


dean

Posts : 3762
Join date : 2008-01-01

View user profile

Back to top Go down

Re: mosquito facts general

Post by dean on Thu Apr 28, 2016 11:16 am

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8541587

Med Vet Entomol. 1995 Oct;9(4):377-80.
Comparison of carbon dioxide, octenol and a host-odour as mosquito attractants in the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany.
Becker N1, Zgomba M, Petric D, Ludwig M.
Author information
Abstract
Field studies were conducted in the Upper Rhine Valley to determine the responses of mosquitoes to CDC traps baited with either CO2, octenol, light or paired combinations of these. Among eight mosquito species caught, the attractant effect on trap catches was studied in the four most abundant: Aedes vexans, Ae.rossicus, Ae.cinereus and Culex pipiens. Traps baited only with light or octenol caught few mosquitoes, whereas many were caught by traps baited with CO2 alone or in combination with either of the other candidate attractants. CO2 baited traps, with or without light, caught the most Aedes. The combination of CO2 and octenol attracted most Cx pipiens, but this apparent synergy was not significant. Using a caged hamster compared to CO2 as bait in a CDC light-trap with only intermittent fan suction, the hamster attracted less mosquitoes than CO2 emitted at a rate of 225 g/h on days 1 and 2, whereas on days 3 and 4 the smell from the hamster's cage became significantly more attractive than this rate of CO2 for all species of mosquitoes.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14529088
J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2001 Sep;17(3):196-205.
Light, carbon dioxide, and octenol-baited mosquito trap and host-seeking activity evaluations for mosquitoes in a malarious area of the Republic of Korea.
Burkett DA1, Lee WJ, Lee KW, Kim HC, Lee HI, Lee JS, Shin EH, Wirtz RA, Cho HW, Claborn DM, Coleman RE, Klein TA.
Author information
Abstract
Two field trials for commercially available and experimental mosquito traps variously baited with light, carbon dioxide, octenol, or combinations of these were evaluated in a malarious area at Paekyeon-Ri near Tongil-Chon (village) and Camp Greaves, Paju County, Kyonggi Province, Republic of Korea. The host-seeking activity for common mosquito species was determined using hourly aspirator collections from a human- and propane lantern-baited Shannon trap. The total number of mosquitoes and number of each species captured during the test were compared using 8 x 8 and 5 x 5 Latin square designs based on trap location. Significant differences were observed for the total number of mosquitoes collected in the 8 x 8 test, such that counterflow geometry (CFG) with CO2 > or = CFG with CO2 and octenol > or = Shannon trap > or = Mosquito Magnet with octenol > American Biophysics Corporation (ABC) light trap with light, CO2 (500 ml/min), and octenol > or = ABC light trap with light and dry ice > or = ABC light trap with light and CO2 > ABC light trap with light only. A concurrent 5 x 5 test found significant differences in trap catch, where Mosquito Magnet with octenol > New Jersey light trap > or = EPAR Mosquito Killer with CO2 > or = ABC light trap with light and dry ice > Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light trap (manufactured by John W. Hock) with light and octenol. Significant differences in trap catch were noted for several species including: Aedes vexans, Anopheles sinensis, An. yatsushiroensis, An. lesteri, Culex pipiens, and Cx. orientalis. Traps baited with octenol captured significantly fewer Cx. pipiens than those not baited with octenol. Likewise, no Cx. orientalis were captured in octenol-baited traps. Host-seeking activity showed a similar bimodal pattern for all species captured. Results from these field trap evaluations can significantly enhance surveillance efforts. Significantly greater numbers of mosquitoes were captured with mosquito traps using counterflow technology (e.g., Mosquito Magnet and CFG traps) when compared to standard light and carbon dioxide-baited traps. Additionally, field evaluations demonstrate that various traps can be utilized for isolation and detection of arboviruses and other pathogens.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26693718

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23701623

J Vector Ecol. 2013 Jun;38(1):175-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1948-7134.2013.12024.x.
Development and laboratory evaluation of chemically-based baited ovitrap for the monitoring of Aedes aegypti.
Baak-Baak CM1, Rodríguez-Ramírez AD, García-Rejón JE, Ríos-Delgado S, Torres-Estrada JL.
Author information
Abstract
Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is considered to be the most important dengue vector worldwide. Studies were conducted to design and evaluate a chemically-based baited ovitrap for monitoring Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions. Several known chemical attractants and three types of ovitraps (ovitraps A, B, and C) were evaluated throughout the oviposition bioassays. Oviposition responses of gravid female Ae. aegypti were evaluated to n-heneicosane, 3-methylindole (skatole), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and phenol. Female Ae. aegypti were attracted to all the evaluated compounds. Among them, n-heneicosane at a concentration of 10 ppm (mg/l), skatole from 50 to 1000 ppm, p-cresol at 100 ppm, and phenol at 50 ppm showed a significant positive oviposition response. A blend of the four chemical attractants increased the oviposition response; 67% of the eggs were deposited in the treatment compared to the control. Female Ae. aegypti were significantly more attracted to ovitrap A loaded with the four-component synthetic blend compared to the standard ovitrap in the oviposition bioassays. The compound used in ovitrap A retained its attractant property for up to three days. The chemically-based baited ovitrap may be considered as an option to be integrated during the monitoring of dengue virus vectors in México.
© 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24199506
J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2013 Sep;29(3):293-6.
A novel autocidal ovitrap for the surveillance and control of Aedes aegypti.
Barrera R1, Mackay AJ, Amador M.
Author information
Abstract
We describe an inexpensive autocidal ovitrap for Aedes aegypti that uses cross-linked polyacrylamide (PAM) gel as the oviposition substrate. Aedes aegypti females readily laid eggs on PAM gel that had been hydrated with either hay infusion or water. Aedes aegypti larvae that hatched from their eggs desiccated on the surface of the PAM gel. We tested the effects of gel hydration, texture, and type of attractant on trap performance, and compared the capture rates of standard ovitraps with those of PAM gel ovitraps in the field. The results showed that the number of eggs did not vary over a range of gel hydration levels (40-100%) and that more eggs were recovered from ovitraps containing coarse gel than from those containing homogenized gel. The PAM gel hydrated with hay infusion was more attractive to gravid female mosquitoes than gel hydrated with water. In the field, the number of eggs recovered from autocidal ovitraps with PAM gel was similar to that recovered from standard ovitraps with hay infusion.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19579722

Do colour and surface area of ovitrap influence the oviposition behaviour of Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue and DHF?
Sivagnaname N1, Amalraj DD.
Author information
Abstract
A newly developed ovitrap made from a fiberglass tray (FGTO) was compared with conventionally used black jar ovitrap (BJO) in field condition in terms of number of eggs received. The number of eggs laid in FGTO was consistently higher than in BJO. The number of eggs collected in FGTO was significantly higher and it was 5-94 times more than that of BJO (t =9.45; p<0.0001). This finding has implication in designing lethal ovitraps for the control of dengue vectors.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24581501
lots of charts

Multimodal integration of carbon dioxide and other sensory cues drives mosquito attraction to humans.
McMeniman CJ1, Corfas RA1, Matthews BJ1, Ritchie SA2, Vosshall LB3.
Author information
Abstract
Multiple sensory cues emanating from humans are thought to guide blood-feeding female mosquitoes to a host. To determine the relative contribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) detection to mosquito host-seeking behavior, we mutated the AaegGr3 gene, a subunit of the heteromeric CO2 receptor in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Gr3 mutants lack electrophysiological and behavioral responses to CO2. These mutants also fail to show CO2-evoked responses to heat and lactic acid, a human-derived attractant, suggesting that CO2 can gate responses to other sensory stimuli. Whereas attraction of Gr3 mutants to live humans in a large semi-field environment was only slightly impaired, responses to an animal host were greatly reduced in a spatial-scale-dependent manner. Synergistic integration of heat and odor cues likely drive host-seeking behavior in the absence of CO2 detection. We reveal a networked series of interactions by which multimodal integration of CO2, human odor, and heat orchestrates mosquito attraction to humans.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24605470
http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/ME13104
Development of the gravid Aedes trap for the capture of adult female container-exploiting mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).
Eiras AE1, Buhagiar TS2, Ritchie SA2.
Author information
Abstract
Monitoring dengue vector control by sampling adult Aedes aegypti (L.) recently has been used to replace both larval and pupal surveys. We have developed and evaluated the Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) through a sequential behavioral study. The GAT does not require electricity to function, and trapped mosquitoes are identified easily during trap inspections. The GAT concept relies on visual and olfactory cues to lure gravid Ae. aegypti and an insecticide to kill trapped mosquitoes. Gravid mosquitoes are lured to a black bucket base containing oviposition attractant (infusion) and are trapped in a translucent chamber impregnated with a pyrethroid insecticide where they are killed within 3-15 min. In semifield observations, the GAT captured a significantly higher proportion of gravid mosquitoes than the double sticky ovitrap. We also demonstrated that the visual cues of the prototype GAT-LgBF (large black base bucket with a black funnel at the top of the translucent chamber) captured a significantly higher proportion of gravid mosquitoes than the other prototypes. The visual contrast created by the addition of a white lid to the top of the black funnel significantly increased the number of captured gravid mosquitoes when compared with the GAT-LgBF in semifield trials. We conclude that the GAT is more efficient in recapturing gravid Ae. aegypti when compared with sticky ovitraps. The GAT is an effective, practical, low cost, and easily transportable trap, features that are essential in large-scale monitoring programs, particularly in areas where funding is limited.

http://www.biogents.com/cms/website.php?id=/en/traps.htm


http://www.biogents.com/cms/website.php?id=/en/traps/how/operation_mode.htm
Biogents' patented counterflow principle mimics the human being and achieves superior capture rates

BG-Mosquitaire CO2 mosquito trap cross section
[+] zoom
All of the Biogents traps function according to the same principle:

A single fan sucks the attracted mosquitoes into a catch bag below the black suction column of the trap. The air stream is then diverted and exits the trap through the white upper surface made of fabric. This air stream mimics the typical scent plume that is produced by the warm human body. The contrast between the dark center and the light surface of the trap is an additional important attractive signal for the mosquitoes.

Carbon dioxide from an artificial nose is added to the air stream in order to increase the spectrum of the mosquitoes captured and maximise the capture rate. The emission rate corresponds to that of a toddler or an infant.

A scent dispenser inside the trap enriches the air stream with small amounts of substances like those also emanated by the human skin. These substances enhance as synergists the attractiveness of the traps. Those substances used alone without trap, e.g. disposed on a sticky surface would be ineffective.
Carbon dioxide from an artificial nose is added to the air stream in order to increase the spectrum of the mosquitoes captured and maximise the capture rate. The emission rate corresponds to that of a toddler or an infant.


http://jme.oxfordjournals.org/content/51/1/210

Field Validation of the Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) for Collection of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

Current surveillance methods for adult Aedes aegypti (L.) are expensive, require electrical power (e.g., the BG-Sentinel trap, BGS), are labor intensive (aspirators), or require difficult to use and costly adhesives (sticky ovitraps). Field trials were conducted in Cairns (Australia) to compare the efficacy of the newly designed Gravid Aedes Trap (GAT) against existing sticky ovitraps (MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap) and the BGS. Latin square design trials confirmed that a large GAT using a 9.2-liters bucket treated with Mortein Barrier Outdoor Surface Spray ([AI] 0.3 g/kg imiprothrin and 0.6 g/kg deltamethrin) outperformed a smaller 1.2-liters GAT and collected, on average, 3.7× and 2.4× more female Ae. aegypti than the MosquiTRAP and double sticky ovitrap, respectively. Field trials showed that the GAT collected 10–50% less female Ae. aegypti than the BGS trap but 30% more gravid mosquitoes than the BGS. Trials using the BGS and the GAT indicated that there was no difference in capture rates between female Ae. aegypti uninfected and infected with the wMel strain of Wolbachia, and wMel infection rates were nearly identical at >90% to field captured Ae. aegypti. The potential for the GAT to be used for dengue virus surveillance was also demonstrated with dengue virus type 3 RNA detected in five-sixths and six-sixths pools of Ae. aegypti stored in a GAT held at 28°C and 60% relative humidity for 7 and 14 d, respectively. Mosquito knock down in GATs treated with Mortein surface spray set in 30, 70, and 99% shade was comparable for up to 2 mo, with only ≈10% of adults escaping. The GAT is therefore a useful tool for capturing adult Ae. aegypti and may be suitable for other container-inhabiting species such as Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say. The low cost and practicality of operation make the GAT suitable for vector surveillance and projects requiring monitoring of mosquitoes for Wolbachia and arboviruses, especially in developing countries.

dean

Posts : 3762
Join date : 2008-01-01

View user profile

Back to top Go down

Re: mosquito facts general

Post by dean on Wed May 04, 2016 5:54 pm

http://www.denguevirusnet.com/aedes-aegypti.html

Aedes aegypti

The yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti is a mosquito that can spread the dengue fever, Chikungunya and yellow fever viruses, and other diseases. The mosquito is a small, dark mosquito of approximately 4 to 7 millimeters with typical white markings on the legs and a marking of the form of a lyre on the thorax. Females are larger than males, and can be distinguished by small palps tipped with silver or white scales.

Figure 1: A female Aedes aegypti taking a blood meal

Figure 2: Aedes aegypti male and female



Aedes aegypti is a day biting mosquito. That means that the mosquito is most active during daylight, for approximately two hours after sunrise and several hours before sunset. The mosquito rests indoors, in closets and other dark places. Outside, they rest where it is cool and shaded. The males of all species of mosquitoes do not bite humans or animals of any species, they live on fruit. The female of Aedes aegypti feed not only on fruit, but also on blood. When viewed under a microscope, male mouthparts are modified for nectar feeding, and female mouthparts are modified for blood feeding (see figure 2). The female needs blood to mature her eggs. Feeding on humans generally occurs at one to two hour intervals. The mosquito attacks generally from below or behind, usually from underneath desks or chairs and mainly at the feet and ankles. Aedes aegypti is adapted to breed around human dwellings and prefers to lay its eggs in clean water which contains no other living species. These eggs become adult in about one-and-a-half to two weeks (see also Life cycle of Aedes aegypti).



https://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/f2013/finstad_jade/adaptation.htm


AE size
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3748492/

dean

Posts : 3762
Join date : 2008-01-01

View user profile

Back to top Go down

Re: mosquito facts general

Post by dean on Wed Aug 03, 2016 5:14 am

http://www.denguevirusnet.com/aedes-aegypti.html

Gravid Mosquito Trap

http://www.cmmcp.org/gravid.htm

http://www.bioquip.com/search/dispproduct.asp?itemnum=2800a

http://johnwhock.com/products/mosquito-sandfly-traps/cdc-gravid-trap/

https://www.bioquip.com/search/DispProduct.asp?pid=2880

BG Sentinel Trap
http://www.bg-sentinel.com/

dean

Posts : 3762
Join date : 2008-01-01

View user profile

Back to top Go down

Re: mosquito facts general

Post by Sponsored content Today at 2:11 pm


Sponsored content


Back to top Go down

View previous topic View next topic Back to top

- Similar topics

 
Permissions in this forum:
You cannot reply to topics in this forum